Disorders that include the use of a substance, or involvement in an activity that alters one's behavior.
An adjustment disorder occurs when a person develops affective (emotional) or behavioral symptoms in response to an identifiable stressor. Stressors can be natural disasters (such as an earthquake), events or crisis (such as car accidents, or development of a medical disorder) or interpersonal problems (such as divorce, or abuse).
Includes disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom(generalized anxiety or panic disorders) or anxiety is experienced unless the individual avoids feared situations(phobic disorders) or tries to resist performing certain rituals or thinking persistent thoughts (obsessive-compulsive disorders). Also includes post-traumatic stress disorder.
Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) is an affective disorder that causes periodic mood swings in which they cycle from depression to mania. Depression may be characterized by having a lack of motivation, difficulty doing tasks, short attention span, decreased appetite, crying spells, difficulty in getting to sleep or sleeping too much, and in the more severe cases thoughts of self harm. Mania may be characterized by a decreased need for sleep, decreased self-control, overspending, increased sexual activity, irritability, rage, risk-taking behaviors, and in the more severe cases psychotic states.
Disorders characterized by excessive suspicions and hostility accompanied by feelings of being persecuted.
A person suffering from major depressive disorder is in a depressed mood for most of the day, nearly every day or has lost interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities, for a period of at least two weeks. Other features include: significant weight change and appetite disturbance (especially loss of appetite), sleep disturbance, slowed movements and speech, restlessness, decreased feelings of energy, feelings of worthlessness, difficulty in thinking or concentrating, indecisiveness, excessive or inappropriate guilt, thoughts of death and suicide or suicide attempts.
Temporary alterations in the functions of consciousness, memory, or identity due to emotional problems. Included are amnesia (the individual cannot recall anything about his or her history following a traumatic experience) and multiple personality (two or more independent personality systems existing within the same individual).
Long-standing patterns of maladaptive behavior that constitutes immature and inappropriate ways of coping with stress or solving problems. There are several major personality disorders including: Antisocial Personality Disorder, Avoidant Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, and Schizotypal Personality Disorder.
A group of disorders characterized by loss of contact with reality, marked disturbances of thought and perception, and bizarre behavior. At some phase delusions or hallucinations almost always occur.
Includes problems of sexual identity (for example, transsexualism), sexual performance(for example, impotence, premature ejaculation, and frigidity), and sexual aim(for example, sexual interest in children, sadism, and masochism).
The symptoms are physical, but no organic basis can be found and psychological factors appear to play the major role. Included are conversion disorders(for example, a women who resents having to care for her invalid mother suddenly develops a paralyzed arm) and hypochondriasis(excessive preoccupation with health and fear of disease when there is no basis for concern.)